Early Childhood Care and Education in Indonesia: Current Practice and Future Policy Directions

Early Childhood Care and Education in Indonesia: Current Practice and Future Policy Directions


Serving as a background to the present overall five-part report, this first part consists of four sections. The first section describes Indonesia’s background in terms of its geography and demography. The second section presents a context of Indonesia’s national development. The third section elaborates on a more specific context for education development, and the fourth section outlines sources of data and how data in this report have been collected.

A. Country Background: Geography and Demography

Indonesia’s population is currently around 219 million people (Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2005/20006) and it consists of more than 300 ethnically distinct groups who speak about 583 local languages and dialects and embrace six major religions (Islam, Protestant, Catholicism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism). Consisting of 33 provinces, Indonesia as a nation-state derives its identity from both homogeneity and heterogeneity on various terms: economic condition, geography, religions, (sub)cultures and ethnic groups. With this diversity, Indonesia is clearly a large and complex nation with an extremely complex education system. This complexity—which stems from an interplay among various levels of diversities—makes a considerable amount of demands on the government in its attempts to ensure equitable provision of quality education in all levels and for all citizens in all regions in the country.

Realizing this complex interplay between citizens in different localities and the kinds of resources available at their respective disposal, any education plans made in the system should also respond to unique geographical conditions of the regions and distribution of the population inhabiting the areas. Consider this as an example: 60% of the population is concentrated in Java and Bali islands, yet these islands constitute only 7% of Indonesia’s land area. In contrast, the Mollucas and Papua represent 21% of the population and 69% of land area (Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2005/20006). This pattern of distribution of population poses particular challenges to the system in ensuring cost effective and efficient provision of high quality education.

The magnitude of Indonesia’s geography and its unique population distribution also manifests in political and public administration systems. There are currently 33 provinces and over 440 districts, each with their own directly-elected local government and administration officials, and these numbers might grow in the future. Population density across these provinces varies widely from around 1,000 people per square kilometre in Java to 7 people per km2 in Papua. The average population density is around 116 per square kilometre (Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2005/20006). These variations of population density have significant impact on the ways in which education services are delivered and the financial consequences which come with these delivery methods.

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Tercatat dilahirkan pada tanggal 10 Maret 1957 dari pasangan Hj Maemunah dan H. Radi Musthafa (semoga Allah Swt menyayangi mereka berdua), Bachrudin Musthafa sangat betah mempelajari bahasa sejak kecil. Sekolah Dasar (dengan nilai “ujian negara” 100 untuk bahasa Indonesia, dan masing-masing 90 untuk Matematika dan Pengetahuan Umum) sampai Sekolah Menengah Atas diselesaikan di Cirebon, sebelum kemudian hijrah untuk kuliah di IKIP Bandung (1979-1984). Setamat dari prodi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris FKSS (kini FPBS) di Kampus Bumi Siliwangi Bandung ini, Bachrudin Musthafa bekerja di Technical Assistance Management Unit (TAMU) di bawah Proyek Bank Dunia XI Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi sampai bulan Mei 1990. Bulan Agustus 1990 sampai September 1997 Bachrudin Musthafa menjalani tugas belajar di Amerika Serikat. Program Master diselesaikannya di IUP (Indiana University of Pennsylvania) dengan konsentrasi kepakaran English Rhetoric and Linguistics (1990-1992) dan program doktor dalam bidang Literacy Studies diselesaikannya di The Ohio State University (OSU), Columus, Ohio, USA (1992-1997). Dengan bekal yang dikembangkannya di USA selama tujuah tahun itu, Bachrudin Musthafa selama ini mengajar di prodi Bahasa Inggris jenjang S1, S2, dan S3 dengan spesialisasi dalam Exploring Poetry; Exploring Drama; dan Literary Research (S1); Teaching English to Young Learners; Qualitative Research Methods; dan Qualitative Data Analysis (S2); dan Llanguage Policy & Planning (S3), dan beberapa matakuliah literasi dalam Bahasa Indonesia di program S2 dan S3 Pendidikan Dasar SPs-UPI, Minat keilmuannya berkisar pada literasi dini dan literasi remaja; dan metode penelitian bidang literasi.

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